The Colosseum, originally known as the Flavian Amphitheatre or simply the Quirinale is the largest amphitheater in the world. It is located in the city center of Rome. Can contain a number of spectators estimated at between 50,000 and 80,000 units, is the most important Roman amphitheater, and the most imposing monument of ancient Rome that has come down to us. It is known worldwide as a symbol of the city of Rome and Italy.
The amphitheater was built on a site just east of the Roman Forum. Its construction was begun by Vespasian in 72 AD It was inaugurated by Titus in 80, with further modifications being made during Domitian's reign. No longer in use after the sixth century, the huge structure was re-used variously throughout the centuries as a quarry of material. The name "Colosseum", which is derived from the nearby statue of the Colossus of Nero, spread only in the Middle Ages. Soon, the building became a symbol of the imperial city, expression of an ideology in which the celebration will come to define models for the entertainment of the people. Today it is a symbol of the city and one of its major tourist attractions.
It was used for gladiatorial shows and other public events (hunting shows, re-enactments of famous battles, and dramas based on Classical mythology). The tradition wants that the place of martyrdom of Christians is unfounded. Clearly expresses the architectural concepts and construction of the first Roman Imperial age, based respectively on the line and enveloping curve offered by the elliptical and the complexity of building systems. Arches and vaults are linked together in a close structural relationship.
The building forms an ellipse of 527 m of perimeter, with axes measuring 187.5 and 156.5 m. The arena inside measures 86 x 54 m, with an area of 3,357 m². The current height reaches 48.5 m, but originally came to 52 m.
The Colosseum, like all the historical center of Rome, the Holy See extraterritorial Zones in Italy and the Basilica of St. Paul Outside the Walls, was listed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1980.
In 2007 the complex was also included among the New Seven Wonders of the World, following a competition organized by New Open World Corporation (NOWC). The competition did declare "sixth wonder of the world", right after the Great Wall of China and before the Taj Mahal in New Delhi in India.
The Flavian Amphitheater seen passing on the inside than 5 million visitors a year.
In 2002, with the birth of the euro, his image was imprinted on the coins of 5 euro cents.
After a long restoration, October 16, 2010 is reopened to the public on the third ring which rises to 33 meters in height and from which you can admire a beautiful view of Rome, opening for the underground, or the galleries where gladiators and animals roamed before the fight. The tombs, which have remained intact over time because buried in the fifth century, is accessed from the door Libitinaria, that the ancient Romans had dedicated to the goddess who presided over the funeral: Libitina, because from there coming out the corpses.
Even today in the Coliseum we held the picturesque Via Crucis.
Today his health conditions appear worrisome, given that studies on its structure showed more than 3,000 injuries and extensive cracking state. Furthermore, in 2012 the encounter of an inclination of 40 cm of the structure, probably due to a failure of the foundation slab on which it rests.
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